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看坝上 (连载) 2—木兰围场

时间:2019-08-20 11:16来源:未知 作者:珠海翻译公司 点击:

木兰围场    Mulan Royal Hunting Ground

木兰围场位于河北省围场县最北端和内蒙古克什腾旗交界处,全称塞罕坝国家森林公园。“塞罕Saihan”是蒙语美丽的意思,塞罕坝就是美丽草原之意。木兰围场离承德市150公里,整个围猎场全部用木兰围起, l周长750公里,占地面积10400平方公里,平均海拔1200米以上,地貌上属内蒙古高原的南缘与大兴安岭余脉的交接地带,夏季最高气温一般不超过25OC,有夏季凉爽,秋季气候多变的特点。木兰围场按照地形变化分成72处小围,每年只在部分小围内狩猎,一年轮换一个地方,以便野兽繁殖。

Located at the intersection of the uttermost northern tip of Weichang County, Hebei Province and the Keshiteng Banner of Inner Mongolia, Mulan Royal Hunting Ground is named Saihanba National Forest Park in full. Saihan is the Mongolian word meaning beautiful and “Saihanba”means beautiful grassland. With a distance of 150 kilometers from Chengde City, the whole hunting ground is encircled by wooden fences, with a circumference of 750 kilometers.  It has an area of 10,400 square meters and its average sea level elevation is over 1,200 meters. Geographically, it belongs to the intersection area of the southern part of the Inner Mongolia plateau and the end mountain range of Daxing'anling.  With its summer highest temperature generally being lower than 25OC, it features cool summer and changeable autumn weather. Mulan Hunting Ground is divided into 72 small grounds depending on geographical changes. Hunting only takes place in parts of the small grounds, and it will shift to another ground each year so as to let the wild animals reproduce.
 
木兰秋弥  “Mulan Qiu Mi”

公元1681年,清帝康熙为锻炼军队、安抚边疆,在现在塞旱坝的地方开辟了一万多平方公里的狩猎场 — 木栏围场,此后每年秋季举行一次军事色彩浓厚的狩猎活动,史称“木兰秋弥”。 皇帝狩猎,四季都有固定的名称,春天叫“春蒐 ”,夏天叫“夏苗”,秋天叫“秋弥”,冬天叫“冬狩”。在四季的狩猎中,以“木兰秋弥”规模最大,不仅对其官员和八旗子弟进行军事拉练演习,而且也是争取、团结各族人民,巩固其统治地位和抵御外侵的政治示威。自公元1681年到公元1863年,康熙、乾隆、嘉庆三位皇帝在围场举行“木兰秋弥”的次数就达到了110次之多。通过“木兰秋弥”,起到了“肄武绥藩”、巩固边防的作用同时以其独特的地位而载入史册。

In 1681 AD, in order to temper the army and placate the border area, Emperor Kangxi opened a hunting ground known as Mulan Royal Hunting Ground with an area of more than 10,000 square meters in what is now the Saihan embankment. Since then, a hunting activity with strong military incarnations was held every autumn, known historically as “Mulan Qiu Mi”. The emperors had specific names for the hunting expeditions taking place in four seasons. In spring, it is called “Chun Sou”, in summer “Xia Miao”, in autumn “Qiu Mi” and in winter “Dong shou”. Among the hunting expeditions of four seasons, the scale of “Mulan Qiu Mi” was the biggest. The Mulan Qiu Mi activities sponsored by the Qing Dynasties not only provided their officials and the descendants of the Eight Banners System with military training and exercises, but they were also the political demonstrations to attract and unite peoples of all nationalities, consolidate their ruling positions and defend against foreign invasions. From 1681 AD to 1863 AD, the three emperors of Kangxi, Qianlong and Jiaqing held as many as 110 “Mulan Qiu Mi” in the hunting ground. “Mulan Qiu Mi” not only played the role of “Exercising military art and making peace with the barbarians” and consolidating the border defense, but it is also recorded into the historical records with its unique position.
 
声势浩荡的木兰行围  Influential Mulan Royal Hunting

“木兰”,满语是“哨鹿”的意思。“哨鹿”其实是一种诱杀的打猎方法。康熙设立木兰围场行围,与清军在其她地方的行围比较起来,声势最大。每年秋分以后,围猎的队伍在黎明前藏于密林,头戴鹿角帽,身穿鹿皮衣,吹起木制长哨,模仿鹿的声音,引诱鹿群进入伏击圈伺机射杀,以此训练军队。
“Mulan” is a term in the language of the Manchu ethnic minority of Qing Army, meaning “whistling deer”. “Whistling deer” is in fact a hunting method of inducing killing. Compared with other enclosure hunting performed by the Qing army in other locations, the enclosure hunting established by Kangxi was most influential. After Autumnal Equinox of each year, the team of enclosure hunting hid in the dense forests before dawn. Wearing deer horn hats and dressed in deer fur coat, they blew long wooden whistles and imitated the sounds of the deer, tempting the deer herds into the raid enclosure so that they could shoot them when opportunities came; and this activity also served the purpose of drilling the army.

按康熙二十二年的规定,每年要以12000人的规模进行“秋弥”活动 。不仅“中央政府”各部官员必须参加,而且蒙古各部的王公贵族也要汇集到这里,随班行围连续进行20天,其盛况空前。行围期满, 皇帝和王公贵族齐聚围场南部的张三营,举行盛大的庆功告别宴会。 饮酒歌舞、摔跤比武。宴会后,清帝再“宴赏”蒙古王公。由此可见 ,木兰围场不仅是满、蒙军队的大规模军事活动,也是清中央政府与蒙古各部的一次盛大集会,以达到结好全国各族上层人物,巩固边防的政治目的。

According to the stipulations in the 22nd year of Emperor Kangxi, the “autumn hunting activities” would be launched by 12,000 people. Not only  officials of the various ministries of the “Central Government” had to take part in them, but all the nobilities of various tribes of Mongolia had to assemble here; they must engage themselves in the enclosure hunting for 20 consecutive days in unprecedented scales. During the periods of enclosure hunting, emperors and nobilities assembled in the Zhangsan Camp in the southern part of the Royal Hunting Ground and held grand celebration and farewell banquets, during which they indulged themselves in drinking, dancing, and wrestling for military strengths. After the banquets, the Qing emperors would grant the Mongolian nobilities with “Rewarding banquets” again. From here it can be seen that Mulan Royal Hunting Expedition was not only a large scale military activity, but also a grand assemblage of the Central government of Qing Dynasty and the various tribes of Mongolia aimed at achieving the political purpose of uniting of Manchu and Mongolian ethnic minorities and consolidating the border defense.